Waste Management 2019
Executives, CEO's of Organizations
Business Development Managers
Boss Scientific Officers
Research and development Researchers from Water, Waste and Energy Management
Educators, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors
Protected innovation Attorneys
Affiliation, Association presidents, and experts
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inspectors
Environmental Compliance Agency workers
Water and air quality engineers
Solid and hazardous waste engineers
Pollution control technicians
Wastewater treatment plant operators
Programming improvement organizations
Research Institutes and individuals
Inventory network organizations
CRO (Contract Research Organization) and DATA administration Companies
Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical and biochemical processes occurring in nature. These impacts may be felt on a local scale, through the presence of urban air pollutants or toxic substances arising from a waste site, or on a global scale, through depletion of stratospheric ozone or global warming. However, it is important to realize that all forms of matter in our environment whether synthetic or natural are made of chemicals.
- Environmental Pollution
- Atmospheric Pollution
- Regional Air Pollution
- Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
- Climate Change
- Water Pollution
- Soil Pollution
Reduce: this entails the deliberate lowering of the number of plastics an individual uses in their day to day life. Reuse: this involves putting to use plastics that have already been used. This can mean putting them to better use than just throwing them away. Recycle: The basic phases in recycling are the collection of waste materials, their processing or manufacture into new products, and the purchase of those products, which may then themselves be recycled. Recycling can help reduce the quantities of solid waste deposited in landfills, which have become increasingly expensive. Recovery: this entails the insistence on not using plastic but rather finding and using existing alternatives.
Manufacturing products from recycled materials consume less energy and produce less pollution than producing the same items from virgin materials. Reducing our use of virgin materials conserves natural resources like trees, water and minerals.
Waste and Biomass Valorization is the process of treatment of waste for (landfill) disposal, storage, and in some cases sorting. In the 1990s, depletion of raw materials and socio-economic concerns supported the direct recycling of waste and residues. Various valorization techniques are currently showing promise in meeting industrial demands. Waste and Biomass Valorization is the process of treatment of waste for (landfill) disposal, storage, and in some cases sorting. Various valorization techniques are currently showing promise in meeting industrial demands. Due to depletion of natural resources, increasing greenhouse emissions and awareness of the need for sustainable development in terms of safely reusing waste and biomass, the transformation of waste/biomass to valuable materials and energy is emerging as a strong trend.
- Non-Virgin Biomass
- Biomass Valorization in Phytomedicine
- Harnessing Agro-Wastes for Bioethanol Production
- Blended Biomass
Biodiesel is made primarily from oily plants and algae and to a lesser extent from other oily sources (such as waste cooking fat from restaurant deep-frying). Biodiesel, which has found greatest acceptance in Europe, is used in diesel engines and is usually blended with petroleum diesel fuel in various percentages.
- Biodiesel as Automobile Fuel
- Biodiesel to Hydrogen-Cell Power
- Biodiesel Production on Industry Level and Scale Up
- Biodiesel Feedstocks
- Crops for Biodiesel Production
- Efficiency and Economic Arguments
- Cost Effective Techniques for Biodiesel Production
Biofuel is energy made from living matter, usually plants. Biofuels are considered renewable energies, emit less than fossil fuels, and have received increasing attention in the transition to a low-carbon economy.
- Newest Technologies in Biofuels
- Fast Pyrolysis Process
- Thermochemical & Biochemical Routes
- Microbial Pathways for Advanced Biofuels Product
- Synthesis of Advanced Biofuels
- Lignocellulosic Biomass
- Development of Bioenergy Technology
- Trends in Syngas
- Scope of Second & Third Generation of Biofuels
Bio-Electrochemical Treatment Systems use microorganisms to catalyze different electrochemical reactions, as well as generating electrical power from wastes, the generation of many different chemical products or biofuels, and the removal of organic, and/or inorganic compounds from water flows. Groundwater, as the main resource of drinking water, is usually characterized by low conductivity (less than 1 MS cm-1. The development of Bio-Electrochemical treatment system requires expertise in electrochemistry, materials, sciences, microbiology, engineering, and other fields.
- Substrate Degradation
- Polarization Behaviour
- Cell Potentials
- Cyclic Voltammetry
- Sustainable Power
Solid waste management refers to all activities pertaining to the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer, and transport, treatment and processing, and disposal of solid wastes in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetic, and other environmental consideration.
- Plasma Arc Gasification
- Hazardous-Waste Management
- Sewerage System
- Emissions Trading
Renewable resources can be described as a rather tricky balancing act. Renewable resource intake and use commonly do not yield decomposition or contribute to global warming. It is easy to recognize the environmental advantages of utilizing the alternative and renewable forms of energy but we must also be aware of the disadvantages. It can be crucial to develop the capacity of electricity that is as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators.
Wastewater treatment processes are arranged to achieve improvements in the quality of the wastewater. The various treatment processes may reduce Suspended solids physical particles that can clog rivers or channels as they settle under gravity. Pathogenic bacteria and other disease causing organisms these are most relevant where the receiving water is used for drinking, or where people would otherwise be in close contact with it; and Nutrients, including nitrates and phosphates. Universally used terminology refers to three levels of wastewater treatment: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
- Phase Separation
- Sewage Treatment Plants
- Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants
- Agricultural Wastewater Treatment Plants
- Leachate Treatment Plants
Bioremediation is becoming the technology of choice for the remediation of many contaminated environments, particularly sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioremediation stimulates the growth of certain microbes that use contaminants as a source of food and energy.
- The Roles of Microbes in Bioremediation
- Variation in Basic Metabolism
- Nutritional Requirements for Contaminant Destruction
- Indicators of Microbial Activity
- Complicating Factors
There are a number of different waste treatment technologies for the disposal, recycling, storage, or energy recovery from different waste types. Each type has its own associated of waste Management. Relatively simple waste treatment technologies can be designed to provide low cost sanitation and environmental protection while providing additional benefits from the reuse of resources. These technologies use natural aquatic and terrestrial systems Composition and generation.
- Ion Exchange
- Advanced Oxidation Processes
- Membrane Filtration
- Mechanical Biological Treatment
The potential for increasing total traditional biomass utilization for energy purposes is limited. The thrust of the activities is therefore twofold, one aim is to broaden the scope of biomass utilization into upgrading and the other aim is to broaden the biofuel base as such. This in turn implies an enhanced focus on fuels for transportation and power generation with respect to traditional biomass and a focus on direct heating for more complex biomass, such as waste etc.
- Biomass Fraction
- Bio-Oil Upgrading
- Thermo-Chemical Conversion
Sustainable waste Management system incorporates feedback loops, is focused on processes, embodies adaptability and diverts wastes from disposal. Sustainability is at the origin of concepts such as sustainable yield, sustainable society, and sustainable development. Discover some of the visionary ways that we're turning waste into a resource for a brighter, more sustainable future.
Health and Well-Being
- Education or Awareness
- Socio-Economic Conditions of a Country
- Profiting from Waste
- Business Image and Profitability
- Scientific Research
The purpose of Environmental Impact Assessment is to rectify and evaluate the potential impacts of development and projects on the environmental system. It is a useful aid for decision making based on understanding of the environment implications including social, cultural and aesthetic concerns which could be integrated with the analysis of the project costs and benefits.
- Environmental Indicator
- Natural Landscape
- Strategic Environmental Assessment
- Economic and Demographic Factors
- Conversation of Biodiversity
A landfill is a carefully constructed and monitored structure that isolates trash from the surrounding environment. This isolation is accomplished with the use of a bottom liner and daily covering of soil. Landfills can create energy. Landfills need expert design as well as professional operators and a proper management to guarantee their functionality.
- Plasma Arc Gasification
- Waste Disposal
- Landfill Diversion
- Secure Landfills
The progressive development of the waste processing industry derives directly from the rapid progress in packaging industry. In addition to the inevitable scrap or reject production loads of in-process waste is produced in packaging industry.
- Hazardous Wastes
- Chemical Waste
- Biomedical Waste
High-performance buildings reflect design excellence. These buildings--often also referred to as "green" or "sustainable"--minimize environmental impact and produce cost savings over their life cycle. These buildings are best designed in an integrative fashion wherein owners, designers and contractors commit from the onset to work together and follow high-performance building principles when addressing critical issues.
- New Construction vs. Adaptive Reuse
- Site Selection, Planning and Design
- Energy- and Water-Efficiency
- Use of Renewable Energy
- Indoor Environmental Quality
- Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Materials
- Recycling During and After Construction
- Building Commissioning
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. Energy efficiency has to be increased at all stages of the energy chain, from generation to final consumption. At the same time, the benefits of energy efficiency must outweigh the costs, for instance those that result from carrying out renovations.
- Smart Cities, Cities That Run Themselves
- Distributed Generation in Smart Cities
- The Electric Vehicle, a Reality Today
- Electric Energy Management from Mobile
- Big Data, the Classic "Information Is Power"
Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator or battery. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves converting energy from forms that are difficult to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms. Bulk energy storage is currently dominated by hydroelectric dams, both conventional as well as pumped.
- Fossil Fuel Storage
- Electrical, Electromagnetic
- Electrochemical (Battery Energy Storage System, BESS)
Many environmentalist and scientist are working to make certain strategies to reduce environmental pollution. In addition to solid waste which we see in our household garbage bins, there are medical, industrial, agricultural and mining wastes. Environment is polluted mostly by improper disposal of waste. Therefore there is a need to keep a check over waste disposal.
- Sewage Treatment
- Green Chemistry
- Basic Aims of Green Chemistry
Green energy comes from natural sources like wind, water, and sunlight. It is much more environmentally friendly than other types of energy and doesn’t contribute to climate change or global warming. Unlike fossil fuels, green energy sources replenish naturally and are in continuous supply.
Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.
Alternative water is often treated to non-potable standards, meaning it is not safe for human consumption. Common uses of alternative water include landscape irrigation, ornamental pond and fountain filling, cooling tower make-up, and toilet and urinal flushing.
- Harvested Rainwater from Roofs
- Onsite Storm Water
- Grey Water
- Discharged Water from Water Purification Processes
- On-Site Reclaimed Wastewater
- Captured Condensate from Air Handling Units.
Improved collection, management and disposal of urban waste is one important strategy that can yield multiple improvements in both climate and health. Using anaerobic digestion, methane emissions can be captured from sewage, livestock manure, and landfill solid waste, and used as biogas or bio-methane, a fuel for cooking, heating or power needs.
Global warming refers to the upward temperature trend across the entire Earth since the early 20th century, and most notably since the late 1970s, due to the increase in fossil fuel emissions since the industrial revolution. Worldwide since 1880, the average surface temperature has gone up by about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), relative to the mid-20th-century baseline (of 1951-1980).
- Methane Emissions
- Carbon Dioxide Emissions
- Rise in Sea Levels
- Hurricanes and Cyclones
- Extinction of Species
- Disappearance of Coral Reefs
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns that lasts for an extended period of time. The Earth's climate has been changing throughout the history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives. At present, the current scenario of the climate change is at alarming levels. The present warming trend is of particular significance because most of it is very likely human-induced and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1,300 years. Earth-orbiting satellites and other technological advances have enabled scientists to see the big picture, collecting many different types of information about our planet and its climate on a global scale. This body of data, collected over many years, reveals the signals of a changing climate
- Climate Change & Climatology
- Evidence of Climate Changes
- Biodiversity Scenarios
- Carbon Cycle
- CO2 Capture and Sequestration
- Climate Hazards
- Risks of Climate Change
- Energy Policy
Environmental legislation is a collection of many laws and regulations aimed at protecting the environment from harmful actions.
- Water Quality
- Waste Management
- Contaminant Clean-up
- Chemical Safety
- Trans-boundary Responsibility
- Public Participation and Transparency
- Precautionary Principle
- Polluter Pays Principle
Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available, and the U.S. has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Modern technology can harness this energy for a variety of uses, including generating electricity, providing light or a comfortable interior environment, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use.
The effluent treatment facility is installed for biological treatment of the effluents. The effluent bears large amounts of organic matter. The direct discharge of the effluent into the water bodies causes depletion of DO of the water. Hence, in order to meet the recommended standards of quality of the effluent, it is necessary to treat the effluent before it is finally disposed of. This treatment facility provides for removal of major pollutants from the effluent.
- Storage Tank
- Equalization Tank
- Neutralization Tank
- Primary Clarifier
- Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor
- Aeration Tanks
- Final Clarifier
- Sludge Drying Beds
Biomass is an industry term for getting vitality by consuming wood, and another natural issue. Consuming biomass discharges carbon outflows yet has been classed as a sustainable power source in the EU and UN legitimate systems since plant stocks can be supplanted with new development. It has turned out to be prevalent among coal control stations, which change from coal to biomass keeping in mind the end goal to change over to sustainable power source age without squandering existing producing plant and framework. Biomass regularly alludes to plants or plant-based materials that are not utilized for nourishment or bolster, and are particularly called lignocellulosic biomass.
- World Resources
- Woody Crops
- Biomass Conversation
- Electrochemical Conversation
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses the little land. The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of non-renewable power sources.
- Wind Farms
- Wind Power and Capacity and Production
- Small-Scale Wind Power
- Generator Characteristic and Stability
Hydroelectricity is power created from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower created 16.6% of the world's aggregate power and 70% of all inexhaustible power, and was relied upon to increment around 3.1% every year for the following 25 years. Hydropower is created in 150 nations, with the Asia-Pacific locale producing 33 per cent of worldwide hydropower in 2013. China is the biggest hydroelectricity maker, with 920 TWh of creation in 2013, speaking to 16.9 percent of local power utilities.
- Conventional Dams
- Tidal Energy
Atomic power is the utilization of atomic responses that discharge atomic vitality to create warm, which most oftentimes is then utilized as a part of steam turbines to deliver power in an atomic power plant. The term incorporates atomic parting, atomic rot, and atomic combination.
Fossil fuel, any of a class of hydrocarbon-containing materials of biological origin occurring within Earth’s crust that can be used as a source of energy. All fossil fuels can be burned in air or with oxygen derived from air to provide heat. This heat may be employed directly, as in the case of home furnaces, or used to produce steam to drive generators that can supply electricity.
- Natural Gas
The composition of e-waste is diverse, containing more than 1,000 different toxic and non-toxic substances. The onset of technological advancement of electrical and electronic appliances is so rapid that new products quickly replace existing models or make certain items of electronic equipment redundant, useless, thereby generating a constant source of e-waste generation. E-waste is created from all electronic: computers, TVs, monitors, cell phones, PDAs, VCRs, CD players, fax machines, printers and many more.